He was confident that the attainment of that goal was not very far off. James Orr rejected an infallible Church, but argued for an infallible Bible. Thus, he anticipated the recently proposed argument among one segment of Fundamentalism that the Bible gains its identify and authority from the Church.
Marsden notes that the belief in inspiration was so strong that some of the writers tended toward dictation. But we are insisting upon no theory. These writers were not automatons.
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Each one shows his own style and personality which the Holy Spirit uses. Science was addressed in only a few articles, all of which centered on creation and evolution.
In this area one writer of The Fundamentals capitulated. While an anonymous layman flatly denied Darwinianism, James Orr was willing to accept certain points of evolution. He stated,.
The Bible was never given us in order to anticipate or forestall the discoveries of modern twentieth century science. The Bible, as every sensible interpreter of Scripture has always held, takes the world as it is, not as it is seen through the eyes of twentieth century specialists, but as it lies spread out before the eyes of original men, and uses the popular every-day language appropriate to this standpoint.
Orr allowed for the six days of creation to be longer than solar days. Later evolutionary theory may rather be described as a revolt against Darwinianism. Henry Beach disagreed. In a scientifically oriented article, he argued that Darwinism was scientifically illegitimate. Dyson Hague also disagreed.
Higher Criticism. True criticism enters into its inquiries with an open mind, while false criticism was controlled by speculative thinking. There was common agreement among the writers that modernists were routinely prejudiced against the supernatural and miraculous. There were articles on specific higher critical issues. One technical article on the authorship of Isaiah was written by George L.
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Another less technical article by Joseph Wilson was a thorough defense of the book of Daniel. Both of these articles gave a fair representation of the higher critical views, but also presented solid biblical and linguistic arguments to support the biblical position. Andrew Robinson wrote a brief article defending the Pentateuch against the Graf-Wellhausen theory of its composition. Other articles dealt with higher criticism in a broader perspective. The result was the elimination of the authority of the Bible and of Christ.
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Interestingly enough, in spite of routine attacks on German higher criticism, an article by the German writer F. Bettex and translated for The Fundamentals listed a string of biblical arguments in opposition to higher criticism. George Frederick Wright and M. Kyle used archaeological evidence to show the truth of scriptural statements. While there was some overlap in material, the articles used recent archeological discoveries to verify various historical references in Scripture. These articles were a positive corroboration of historical statements in Scripture designed to counteract higher critical attacks on the veracity of the Bible.
Dispensationalism: A Basis for Ecclesiastical Separation
The second priority was theology, particularly the defense of the Godhead and the importance of salvation. There were four general apologetics for Christianity, two articles argued for the existence of God, and seven articles concerned themselves with issues surrounding the deity and life of Christ.
His article dealt with the universal church and had no reference to the local church at all. Two articles focused on the Holy Spirit and reflected some of the popular Keswick thought of the time. William G. Moorehead focused on the deity of Jesus. Warfield also argued for the deity of Christ. In his article, he recognized the dual roles of evidence and experience:. We believe in God and freedom and immortality on good grounds, though we may not be able satisfactorily to analyse these grounds.
He believed that the greatest argument for the deity of Christ was the existence of Christianity. John Stock argued for the deity of Christ based almost entirely on the declarations of Christ himself. James Orr based his belief on the virgin birth of Christ on scriptural testimony, from both the Old and New Testaments. Torrey argued for a literal, physical resurrection of Christ from the dead. The personality and deity of the Holy Spirit were argued by Torrey. Whitelaw defined sin in clear, biblical terms, describing its nature, origin and ultimate outcome.
Index of Cults and Religions
A more technical article on sin, dealing with the biblical words and their meanings, was presented by Charles Williams. A third article by Robert Anderson showed the ultimate results of sin—the judgment of God on mankind. In opposition to modernist hopes of a universal salvation, Anderson declared mankind a failure, without excuse, hopelessly depraved, and lost. Two articles on the Atonement emphasized the only hope for salvation from the judgment of sin. Franklin Johnson rejected the moral influence theory as insufficient, with only the substitutional atonement as adequate to remove the penalty of sin.
Thomas Boston argued against a number of modernist beliefs; he demonstrated that the church cannot save, that good education is not regeneration, and that an external change is not necessarily an indicator of salvation. Instead, salvation is an internal change wrought by the work of the Holy Spirit. Faith was declared to be the only basis for justification. While there were numerous academic articles dealing with higher criticism, doctrine, etc. The emphasis on the authority of Scripture was overriding and therefore came first in order; then followed the emphasis on the validity of experience and practicality.
Experience, when divorced from doctrine, is dangerous; experience, when tied to the Scriptures, is strengthening. Mullins, for instance, based his proof of Christianity almost exclusively on experience and the practical, noting that this brought Christianity into contact with the new philosophy of Pragmatism. The practical articles included five personal testimonies appearing as the last article in each of the first five volumes, after which A.
The practical articles and the personal testimonies showed the importance of evangelism, personal spirituality, and prayer; there was little emphasis on ethical issues or issues of personal separation. There was a strong emphasis on evangelism, especially in the later volumes. Munhall delineated the basic doctrines which underlay evangelism. Genuine evangelism must be based upon discipleship; the evangelist must know experientially the power and joy of the gospel.
Power from the Holy Spirit and faith in God are necessary as well. The field of evangelism is the world. The message is to be preached, proclaiming the message given by God. The preacher is also to be a martus , a martyr or witness to the faith he is proclaiming. While thankful for the mass evangelism of Whitefield, Moody and Sankey, Spurgeon, and others, John Stone argued that the foremost means of evangelism was that employed by Christ himself, winning men one-by-one.
Christians should be trained how to visit their neighbors and co-workers, in order to develop a friendship from which there can develop opportunities of evangelism.
Phase Two: Militant Fundamentalism, 1919–1940
He was still mistaken. Moritz maintains the grounds of any separation are principles based upon the holiness of God The Christian is to remove himself as far as it is humanly possible from all forms of evil, whether they be peripheral, pivotal or relatively ancillary. To hate evil means to hate it in all its forms—its ancestry, its immediate presence and its progeny!
Well, what is the definition of a disobedient brother?