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Awareness of antismoking messages was an independent variable measured by a set of five questions; each of which asked if the respondents noticed antismoking information in a particular media outlet during the past 30 days. Demographic covariates included the following.


Christianity and others; we dichotomized this variable because its distribution was highly skewed with Islam as the predominant religion followed by Christianity. Our analyses involved cross-sectional data and were conducted in two steps.

First, prevalence of intention to quit by each independent variable among smokers was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression was used because it accounted for several confounding variables simultaneously. We applied sample weights, strata, and cluster variables to all analyses to account for the unequal probability of selection, oversampling, and nonresponse. SAS 9. Overall, Intending to quit smoking was more prevalent among younger 15—29 years smokers, and smokers who had a higher level of education, were identified with the religion of Islam, and were employed.

Intending to quit smoking was more prevalent among smokers who had low nicotine dependence, had knowledge of tobacco-related diseases, tried to stop smoking in the past 12 months, and had household restrictions on smoking. Results from the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses are shown in Table 2. However, no significant difference was observed between middle-aged and younger smokers.

Smoking cessation - Wikipedia

The odds of intention to quit smoking were 2. Smokers who tried to stop smoking in the past 12 months, those who had household restrictions on smoking, and those aware of tobacco-related diseases had 4. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the prevalence and correlates of intention to quit smoking among a nationally representative sample of smokers in Kazakhstan. Overall, we found We found that the odds of intention to quit significantly higher among smokers who attempted to stop smoking in the past 12 months, had household restrictions on smoking, and had knowledge of tobacco-related diseases.

Our finding for older smokers having lower odds of quitting intention than younger ones is consistent with existing research in other countries [ 29 — 32 ]. One such study exploring beliefs about quitting among older smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia found that older smokers were less willing to quit because they perceived themselves as less vulnerable to the harms of smoking, less concerned about health effects of smoking, or confident about being able to quit successfully [ 31 ].

In light of these findings, it is possible that the older smokers in the GATS-Kazakhstan sample might share similar attitudes and beliefs about stopping smoking, leading to lower odds of quitting intention overall; however, we were unable to determine the exact causes. We suggest that further research is needed to examine obstacles to cessation among older smokers in Kazakhstan. Research from developed countries indicates that most smokers were aware of the major health risks of smoking, such as lung cancer and stroke [ 36 , 37 ]. In the GATS-Kazakhstan sample, this knowledge was assessed as being aware of six or more of the 12 common tobacco-related diseases.

These findings highlight the need for public health education on all aspects of tobacco-related diseases in Kazakhstan. We suggest prevention efforts should be directed toward providing smokers as well as the general public with comprehensive information on the negative health consequences of cigarette smoking. Widespread dissemination of research showing the harms of tobacco use on health has been particularly effective among populations in which knowledge of tobacco-related health concerns is low, as is often seen in emerging economies [ 41 ].

Most existing research has found that intention to quit smoking decreases with nicotine dependence [ 18 , 19 , 42 ]. However, a number of studies have also found that nicotine dependence is not associated with quitting intention among smokers [ 43 , 44 ]. In the current study, we discovered a significant negative association between nicotine dependence and intention to quit smoking, that was, the higher the dependence, the lower the intention to quit smoking.

However, this significance only applied to moderate vs. Smokers with high nicotine dependence are usually treated with costly interventions, such as nicotine replacement therapy, to help them reduce consumption of tobacco [ 45 ].


Health Matters: Stopping smoking - what works?

Given that most smokers in our sample had moderate nicotine dependence, which was associated with lower odds of quitting intention, we suggest investing in cessation strategies targeting smokers with moderate nicotine dependence instead of in costly nicotine replacement therapies meant for smokers with high nicotine dependence. Consistent with findings from previous studies [ 45 ], we found that those who attempted to stop smoking had 4.

Previous studies have shown that national smoke-free legislation may prompt smokers to establish total smoking bans in their homes [ 46 ]. Perhaps the current effort in Kazakhstan to ban smoking in public places has an impact on smoking bans at homes too [ 27 ]. The current study had several limitations. First, GATS was a cross-sectional survey, thus, we were not able to defer causal relationships of the intention to quit smoking and its correlates. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence of these relationships. Second, GATS was a self-reported measure, and like all self-reported measures, it may have been influenced by social desirability biases.

Despite these limitations, this study fills a gap in the literature by examining the prevalence and correlates of intention to quit among smokers in Kazakhstan for the first time. The current tobacco control policies in Kazakhstan mainly focus on banning smoking in public places; restricting tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; regulating placement of health warnings on tobacco products; and raising tobacco-related taxes [ 27 ]. Our findings suggest that, to implement Article 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Kazakhstan [ 47 ], more efforts need to be invested in the provision of cessation services for all smokers regardless of age, in delivering comprehensive health education about the risks of tobacco use for the general public, and in upholding and strengthening existing policies on smoking bans.

I had to switch brands to Life brand because they have the tan ones and the adhesion is great. So many sick days. I thought of my funeral, I thought of the ones I would leave to mourn. How could I break their hearts. How could I remain so selfish. I tried nicoderm step 1, but it gave me migraines and I almost gave up.

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I tried step 2 and it worked better for me. You will need will power and let everyone know that is around you that it will affect your mood and to just not to pay it too much mind. After 4 weeks of step 2 I was ok and decided to begin step 3. Again will power! The cravings never go away, but they do get weaker. I decided to just let go. Its will power and keeping busy. I joined a gym, and am also down 15lbs". After going to step 2 I ended up starting to smoke again. Several years later in the summer of , I started over again with Nicorderm step 1, except this time I continued to use the step 1 patch only.

I was going to quit even if I had to use the step 1 patch for the rest of my life. After approximately 6 months I stopped using the patch and have been smoke free for almost two years. Every now and then I have a craving for a cigarette, but the craving only last for a few minutes.

Quitting Smoking: 100 Days Smoke Free - What I've Learned So Far

I had smoked two to three packs a day for fifty years. As these are relatively pricey I did not purchase the entire program up front I think it is 8 or 10 weeks? Rather, I bought one box of Step 1 and one box of Step 2. Well I'm so glad because I ended up only using the step one box and half of Step 2. Used total of 11 days It was just that easy to quit. I just had to find something to do with my hands the first few days. I got busy at work and realized after several days that I hadn't been remembering to put a patch on in the morning I was FREE after 20 years and never got a craving again 5 years smoke free I delayed quitting due to all the horror stories people tell about quitting.

As long as I wear the patch I am good but I can't wear it forever, so what can I do next?


The gum make me sick". I was smoke free for 1 year, then I had a major emotional break down and went back to smoking. Now I'm on the patch again and its been a week and I' have no cravings for cigarettes or hookahs, unless I'm driving or after eating but it quickly passes over. I most definitely will recommend the patches!!! I continued to smoke and drink and dope until I was 27 at which time I became a Christian and quit all three vices cold turkey. I believe I was able to do that because of my faith in the Lord. Due to a lot of pressures in my life, at age 34, I returned to all three vices once again.

At age 44, I returned to my faith and wanted to quit again, I was coughing and easily became short of breath. I was able to quit for short periods of time, smoking more than not. At 49 I relapsed again and was doing all three. Then on , I quit drinking and doping, and shortly thereafter I quit smoking with the help of nicotine patches and I've been sober and smoke free ever since. I cannot believe how effective they are! I barely even think about vaping. I smoked heavily for 10 years, and vaped heavily for 5 years.

I still have that muscle memory of wanting to pick up my mod and it not being there, or getting ready to leave the house and not having to grab it. Those things you can't help, but I have almost zero cravings. When I do it's because of triggers like after eating and when driving and it passes quickly. I tried the gum and for me it didn't work at all like not even a little bit.

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  4. I would recommend Nicoderm to anyone that's ready to quit! I bought the patch step 1.

    E-cigarettes 'much better for quitting smoking' - study

    The 1st week on the patch I smoked maybe 2 cigarettes. After that I was done. My only issue now 4 years later is that I'm still on the patch. I'm addicted to the patch. I cut it in half and put it on every morning. It's an expense I can live without, but if I don't use it, I'm a mess. I feel unfocused, tired, hungry. I guess it's a healthier addiction than smoking, but not sure what I'm doing to my body. I smoked almost 2 packs a day for 31 years. Tried to quit many times. This is by far the best and easier way.