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A Frequency Dictionary of Portuguese
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To start the smart day. It is childish to suffer for frivolous things It's a cause of frustration there's still It's a cause of suffering hunger. Religious persecution is a cause of revolt. It's a cause of sadness the mothers who abort their babies You may be upset that you didn't reach a goal, for not winning an award you expected A weak generation. Work look beyond the navel itself Get out behind of's screen and go for a walk!
Just look around and you'll see that life is hard for everyone! By , the Portuguese had taken control of Kandy from Rajasinghe through the skillful leadership of commander Don Juan Konappu Bandara. Now back in Kandy, sent there by the Portuguese, the former Konappu Bandara was commanding troops from the newly constructed fort of Gannoruwa. Within a year, king Don Filipe died suspected of being poisoned by Don Juan. He attacked the Portuguese and made them to leave Kandy. While retreating from a battle, Rajasinghe died of blood poisoning from a bamboo splinter Jayaweera Banda,- the treasurer of Rajasinghe, declared himself the king Sitawaka, but the kingdom disintegrated after Rajasinghe.
The Portuguese recaptured much of the land of Kotte kingdom and emerged as a strong power in the island. The royal princes were captured, including Nikkapitiye Bandara, who died in Coimbra, Portugal in After fighting with the Portuguese forces at Balana, Vimaladharmasuriya retreated to Wellassa.
The Portuguese forces successfully entered Kandy and enthroned Dona Catarina, but soon alienated themselves from the Sinhalese, as Portuguese officers surrounded the young queen. The Sinhalese general Manamperi was suspected of treason and slain, which led to the desertion of the Sinhalese in the Portuguese arm. Vimaladharmasuriya, who was already in Kandy defeated the Portuguese army in the battle of Danture on 9 October The Portuguese directed their forces to Colombo, expecting a Sinhala uprising, but that occurred only in Sitawaka.
The first missionaries to arrive in Sri Lanka were the Franciscans in , and they were active in Kotte and Jaffna. Jesuits arrived in , Dominicans in and Augustinians in They introduced the western style of mass education in Sri Lanka. Then, education was available only to the elite in pirivenas or the children of the rich, who could bring a pandit teacher home to teach.
The missionaries built and conducted schools, orphanages and infirmaries. The disgraced Don Juan Dharmapala had funded a college in Colombo and primary schools in suburban towns, hoping to build colleges in every town Francis In the three Franciscan schools attached to monasteries, religion, good manners, reading, writing, arithmetic, singing and Latin were taught.
The Jesuits also had colleges in Jaffna and Colombo, all offering free high education, pioneering free secular education in the country. Franciscans also provided education to orphaned boys at Mutwal, Jaffna and Navagamuwa near Hanwella. There were twenty-five parish schools run by the Franciscans and twelve parish schools run by the Jesuits in Jaffna. The Jesuits added singing canticles to the teaching of religion, a method that St Francis Xavier used in India.
Taking the performing arts beyond mere chanting, Jesuit missionaries introduced drama and theatre to Sri Lanka. Gomis found records of plays that were staged in Colombo, Chilaw, Kammala and Tellippalai. Missionaries also introduced Sinhala language and grammar to the western world through the books they wrote in Portuguese. Alagiyawanne Mukaveti , a Catholic literary scholar wrote the famous Subaslzitliaya during the Portuguese period.
Besides their contribution to education and literature, the Portuguese language also added a few words to the Sinhala language and introduced their food, plants, games, music, engineering, construction and architecture. Some of the Sinhala words derived from Portuguese include, gudama warehouse , pethsama petition , rippa lath , almariya cupboard , mesa table , koppa cup , saya skirt , kalisama trouser , iskola school , achchiaru pikle , bibikkan cake , pera guava and gova cabbage. Present day Sinhalese Baila and Kafferina are derived from Portuguese melodies.
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Portuguese also introduced the western dress e. Covering the upper body of women, long sleeved blouse, skirt, trousers and social life. The legalistic approach in observing commandments, church laws, sacraments and beliefs, as well as the emphasis on Christian concepts of sin, conscience, hell, heaven, purgatory and forgiveness at confessions added discipline and ethics to the Christian community.
As inter—religious interactions occur with social interactions, some of these values must have interacted with similar values in other religions, upgrading the moral and ethical standards of Sri Lankans. Portuguese had a significant impact on the royal families of Kotte, Sitawaka, Kandy and Jaffna kingdoms.
This impact has been both spiritual and material, and often they combined the two aspects in the management and governance of the land they ostensibly claimed by agreement and war. Some of these conversions would have been genuine and others politically motivated. It is clear that the baptism of Jayaweera Bandara, Vidiya Bandara and Konappu Bandara were voluntary, but politically motivated, as they gave up Christianity at the opportune time.
Others would have accepted Christianity with some conviction, for they lived and died Christians. Some of them went further to embrace priesthood and religious life. From Colombo, they went to the Franciscan College of the Magi at Bardes Goa, where they studied for fifteen years and were ordained deacons. They then went to the University of Coimbra, Portugal to continue their studies.
Dona Catarina, the queen of Kandy, is considered by some as a pawn of the Portuguese, and by others as a true Buddhist Sinhalese, who turned to her people of Kandy. A few consider her to have been exploited by King Vimaladharmasuriya I and later by King Senarath for their ascent to power. She was about thirteen years when the Portuguese brought her to Kandy and Vimaladharmasuria grabbed her from them. Their marriage would have been a happy one, as they had many common things, including the Sinhalese and Kandyan ancestry, Portuguese language and Christian background.
Vimaladharmasuriya built a chapel and allowed Franciscan friars to enter the royal palace and teach their children to read, write and speak Portuguese Dewaraja But, her life with King Senarath, an ex-Buddhist monk was miserable. Dona Catarina hated Senarath, when she realised that he had poisoned Mahastanne, her eldest son by Vimaladharmasuriya. She spent her last few years in a palace in Wellimantota in Kegalle and died on 20 July at the age of thirty—five. She was given a Catholic burial with a pearl rosary in her hands and a Bible by her side.
Before her death she called Marcellus de Boschouwer Dutch ambassador and Kuruvita Rala and gave them the custody of her children. Bell, the first British archaeological commissioner of Sri Lanka, declared seven acres of her burial ground as an archaeological site. But, the Sri Lankan archaeological commissioners who came later reduced that area to half an acre, and recently a developer was allowed to encroach on to the site Fernando, undated. Attempts to construct a historical monument there have been discouraged by some Aryatilake undated , and the perpetually lit lamp and a mausoleum built by Kuruvita Rala in memory of Dona Catarina were allowed to disappear by subsequent government agents.
On the positive side, unintentionally the Portuguese also had made some contributions to the Buddhist-Sinhalese of Sri Lanka. Dona Catarina, who played a key role in restoring the Buddhist Sinhalese identity through her marriage to Vimaladharmasuriya was brought up by the Portuguese. Vimaladharmasuriya built the current temple of the tooth and brought the tooth relic to Kandy. It was the Portuguese who saved Vimaladharmasuriya i. It was the Portuguese who trained John of Austria i.
Vimaladharmasuriya in discipline, warfare and governance in Goa, and Dona Catarina in ethics, governance, royal protocols and etiquette in a convent. As the king and queen of Kandy they applied the skills that they learnt from the Portuguese in the establishment of a Buddhist-Sinhala kingdom in Kandy.
Recognizing the value of education and skills that the Portuguese friars were teaching, both king Vimaladharmasuriva and king Senarath ensured that their children were taught by Franciscan friars, and even allowed them to teach Latin and Catholic religion. These kings held the Franciscan friars in high esteem, including the military chaplains who were captured while giving the last rights to dying soldiers in battlefields. Muitos comandantes Chingalas morreram na batalha e Rajasinghe fugiu com os seus militares sobreviventes.
No ano seguinte, Rajasinghe conquistou Kandy. Yamasinha foi enviado para Goa e baptizado como D. O filho de Virasundara Bandara.