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Relatorio de uma viagem ás terras dos Landins
O Tribunal Judicial de Maputo adiou esta quinta-feira TV Miramar is a nationwide television station in Mozambique, located in Maputo. On the other hand, there were also migrations inside these inland territories, from the more rural villages to the towns and cities, which left the rural areas less populated.
However, in , the Portuguese population had clearly aged, with a narrowing at the base, which means fewer people in the younger classes, and enlargement at the top, corresponding to an increase in the numbers of the older age groups. The Portuguese population took on a more urban behavior and women entered the labor market in strength, one consequence being an accentuated drop in births, which led to the profound narrowing of the base of the pyramid.
In contrast, the top of the pyramid broadened very significantly, reflecting a reduction in mortality and the consequent increase in life expectancy, and so the pyramid for is already typical of an aged country and, therefore, less able to intervene in traditional forestry management. Firewood and coal are less and less used as fuel, being replaced by gas and electricity;. Sub stantial reduction in the use of animal manure as organic fertilizer, replaced by chemical fertilizers. The phenomenon arises in part from social transformations and reflects the inappropriate management of forested areas.
Source: ICNF. Prepared by Sofia Fernandes. Source: Adapted from IGP [ en ligne ]. This is explained, firstly, by unfavorable weather for the progression of fires with cool and wet summers, at times even with some rain. Besides this, for the first time in , even bigger fires were recorded, with an area of over twenty thousand hectares, or rather, we can consider this the start of a third generation.
However, when considered, they may be included in this first generation which, largely, was due to the profound social and economic transformations experienced in Portuguese society after the April revolution, with repercussions on forests and on forest fires. The problem was still far from being resolved. This had to do with the spatial distribution of the major forest fires, which was different from usual, or rather, far from the usual regions of the North and Center, where the largest concentration of fire-fighting devices was to be found. Fortunately, in the following days the weather conditions changed and the situation was much less serious than had been feared at the end of July.
A — 1 st generation: to ; B — 2 nd generation: from to ; 3 rd generation: from to ; 4 th generation - from BA - Burnt Area. Maps prepared by F. We can add that they cover areas that were previously burned by various large fires, and everything indicates that they appear particularly in the Center Region, traditionally the most affected and, lastly, that their incidence is largely in areas of urban-forest interface, where they cause many victims and enormous material damage, both to residences intended for habitation and industrial installations, indicating the clear inadequacy of fire-fighting resources.
This text envisaged the creation of a new organic model for the forestry sector which, among other aspects, was based on the creation of three institutional pillars:. The Directorate General for Forest Resources DGRF , which would have the powers of the national forest authority, namely with regard to forestry planning, forestry police and the prevention of forest fires;.
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The Forest Fire Prevention Agency APIF , the body responsible for coordinating strategies, the compatibility and orientation of concrete actions to prevent forest fires;. The Permanent Forestry Fund, intended to support the forestry sector and activities that are not immediately profitable, and which is financed, namely, by revenue from public and community woods, by revenue from fines applied and by the imposition of a tax, in terms to be defined, on the consumption of oil products.
Besides these organisms, the National Reforestation Council was also created, with the aim of coordinating actions to recover the forest areas affected by fire. Reducing the burned area annually to below 0. Reducing the number of fires with an area of over 1 ha. Thus, in , the maximum value of burned area would be less than 0. Defense of the forest, in terms of prevention and firefighting. The legislative package thus contemplated a dozen measures, namely:.
Creation of a Simplified Land Information System;.
Documents & Reports
Creation of a legal regime for the recognition of forest management entities;. Alteration of the legal regime of the Regional Forestry Planning Programs, with greater intervention of the municipalities;. Institution of a regime of incentives and exemptions applicable to the forest management entities;. Creation of biomass plants ;. Review of the Forest Fire Defense System;. Review of the legal regime of afforestation and reforestation initiatives, in order to halt the expansion of the area of eucalyptus trees and.
The measures adopted by Portugal, with British approval, were presented as merely preventive and aimed at colonial defense; they did not result in a declaration of war by Germany or its allies. Under the cloak of an undeclared neutrality, Mozambique soon became a buffer zone between British and German territory, a crossing point for essential goods contraband and foodstuffs, and a privileged platform for the acquisition of intelligence through espionage vital for both British and Germans throughout the war. Alfredo Lisboa de Lima, the then Minister for the Colonies, charged the governor of Niassa with controlling the Rovuma border and placed all German ships at anchor in the colony under the strictest of supervisions Carvalho, Through their legation in Lisbon, the British had already ordered the garrisoning, with indigenous forces, of the territories held by the old Niassa Company.
It is natural that our alliance [with Britain] should, after an exchange of views between the governments of the two countries, serve to guarantee the integrity of the Portuguese possessions. But hoping to secure that guarantee while keeping our arms folded, without an efficient demonstration that we are capable, for our part, of making every possible effort to defend what is ours, is to place the country in a humiliating and depressing condition before the great English nation, a condition for which there is but one word: protectorate.
Command of the Mozambique-bound troops was handed to Massano de Amorim, who would be subordinate to the General Government of the Province. To this was added the faulty military training received by the recently sent forces, as well as the deficient constitution of the men who made them up, and who, for the most part, proved unable to withstand the rigors of the tropical climate.
Many men even arrived ill in Africa, having failed to withstand the terrible hygiene conditions which characterized the journey. The personnel, both European and African, is of the poorest possible quality. The British ships that transported the expeditionary forces to Africa went as far as to drop their respective loads into the sea, close to the beach, before departing, since they could not wait for a disembarkation which had not been properly prepared.
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The ship lay at anchor at the center of the bay, static, an apocalyptic colossus, out of all proportion […] enormous blacks, naked but for a piece of cloth tied around their kidneys, entered the water, their teeth shining from open mouths, to carry men on their backs. There was some hesitation among the white troops who arrived only to be received in such grotesque fashion; but the bravest among them climbed on to the back of the blacks, while carrying their own gear, and then clung desperately to the hair of the blacks, who whined like pursued rats but who ferried them to dry land.
There were no personal disasters nor forced baths.
When acting alone, removed from the Portuguese sphere of influence, the natives help us freely. They are going to Africa for a single purpose: to defend the land left to us by our elders.
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They go to fight so that this land, ossuary of our martyrs and tomb of our heroes, is kept under our flag. They are not going to destroy, wipe out, or conquer foreign territory; they are going to defend their own soil. They do not want to subjugate anyone; they seek only to fight so that we are not ourselves subjugated.