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To date the first three have received the greatest attention but as attention has turned to development and implementation of management strategies, greater consideration has being given to the human dimension of LMEs represented by the latter two modules. This article focuses on governance, a matter that is of fundamental importance because it shapes the pattern of human use of the natural environment.

Efforts to promote ecosystem-based management occur within different governance frameworks; these frameworks and their associated dynamics must be understood in the same fashion that the structure and interplay of the elements of the natural ecosystem need to be comprehended. Just as natural science employs baseline studies to gauge change over time, this paper asserts the need for similar studies relevant to governance aspects of ecosystem use.

After identifying and describing the roles of three major and generic governance institutions, we suggest the development in each LME of a governance profile that outlines and analyzes the existing governance framework. Moreover, we propose to consider governance change over time to assess whether such shifts represent movement in the direction of greater ecosystem focus.

Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Lawrence Juda, Timothy Hennessey. Pages Published online: 29 Oct The funds are available from the GEF and WB to support project proposals submitted by developing countries in partnership with accredited UN or other agencies and organizations including NGOs. Although not a GEF-supported project, the Russian Federation and Norway are managing the greatly expanding fisheries of the Barents Sea from an ecosystem perspective.

Examples of the forward movement can be found in the successes in reducing fishing effort on overfished stocks and in the implementation of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture IMTA; Fang et al. Strides are being made in Africa for stronger links between science and governance of LME goods and services with the establishment of interim LME Commissions. The results reported to the meetings with regard to fish and fisheries were encouraging for the Yellow Sea, Benguella Current, Canary Current, and Humboldt Current LMEs where fisheries catch limits were being implemented in an effort to rebuild depleted stocks and maintain them as sustainable resources.

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These results have been shared with the policy experts from the affected LMEs to allow for consideration of precautionary management options Sherman, b. In another report, UNDP representatives described a successful approach to catalysing substantial amounts of ocean finance for LME recovery and sustainability Hudson and Vandeweerd, At the annual meeting, 47 scientists and policy advisors and project managers participated from Asia, Africa, Latin America, eastern Europe, North America, and the Pacific.

In relation to lessons learned, I subscribe to the notion that ecological science is far more evolutionary than revolutionary in its application to improving the present global environmental condition. Among the lessons learned in advancing the LME approach towards the sustainable development of coastal oceans are: i new ideas should be brought forward in open scientific fora to debate and advance the concept.

It was, in fact, the strong base of tightly linked natural science and social science contributions to the peer-reviewed LME volumes that constituted the multidisciplinary and multisectoral base of the LME approach that caught the attention and support of international financial institutions and United Nations environmental agencies.

The substantial funding subsequently supporting LME projects in developing countries served to elevate the application of the LME approach to address the United Nations' environmental mandates. From the perspective of a plankton fisheries ecologist and oceanographer, as I take a look at marine science and its contribution to fisheries and other marine sectors, I am encouraged by the steady evolution towards multidisciplinary and multisectoral EBM practice. From the results reported by Peterson et al. My interest in contributing my expertise in plankton biology and ecology to fisheries assessment and management, although thwarted in the s and early s, did serve to establish a professional foothold on a pathway where I could envision a way forward towards a more broadly based ecosystem approach to fisheries stock assessment in the late s.

As part of the fishery ecology movement of the s and early s, my interest in advancing the ecological movement led to open dialogue with colleagues in marine policy and marine affairs. We were able to formulate within the spatial domain of the LME approach, a basis for linking multisectoral science-based assessment to support the policy of sustainable development of the oceans declared at three world environmental summits.

Through application of the five-module LME approach, developing countries in Asia and Africa have demonstrated the successful application of EBM towards sustainable development of their coastal ocean goods and services. Much remains to be accomplished.

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I have had the unique privilege of observing and participating in a paradigm shift from multiscale marine resources assessment and management practices generally applied to single marine sectors in the s and s to the present emergent movement towards EBM from the mids to the s as expressed by Lubchenco and McLeod et al.

The most notable drivers towards this paradigm shift were i the policy decisions among the global community of nations to extend national jurisdictions to miles in the mids, ii the expanding global populations increasing market demands for marine products, and iii the recognition by the s of coastal ocean limits to renewable resources. Recent reports of fish stock depletions, nutrient overenrichment leading to oxygen depletions and fuelling harmful algal blooms, emerging hypoxic events, habitat degradation from sewage, oil spills and blowouts; acidification; biodiversity losses; and climate change-induced sea level rise, bring an unprecedented level of public and private sector awareness and support in favour of multisectoral EBM practice.

By virtue of what may be called due-diligence over a half-century career, the application of methodologies for monitoring and assessing changing coastal ocean conditions in support of renewable coastal ocean resources management from an ecosystem perspective, marine scientists from both the OECD and developing countries communities now have sufficient financial support to initiate a more deliberately planned movement towards EBM. As one of those closely engaged in supporting EBM practice, I believe that we have the opportunity to extend scientific and technical assistance to those hundreds of million of people inhabiting economically developing coastal nations around the globe whose government leaders welcome the assistance.

These countries have already successfully completed their first 5-year LME-EBM projects and are in the process of planning and implementing additional 5-year phases. As I look back on my career, I should like to underscore several lasting impressions. The first is on the importance of mentoring. As a graduate student at the University of Rhode Island, it was the enthusiastic inspiring lectures of Professor David Mariotti Pratt on plankton ecology that led me to a fascination and professional commitment to the study of marine plankton.

It will do a lot more good in your hands than it would in mine! Yours, Henry BB.

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I was indeed fortunate to have benefitted from the personal inspiration of these two marine scientists and their lasting career-shaping legacies. The importance of mentoring was not forgotten later in my career in encouraging and supporting staff towards advanced academic studies, and in serving as adjunct faculty guiding graduate theses at the University of Rhode Island, and lecturing at the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth Campus.

Another impression is that studies in marine science and fisheries have shifted from a period in the s, s, and s from limited spatial and temporal national and regional issues to the more broadly based ecological goals focused on recovery and sustainability of coastal ocean goods and services from a global perspective. Much of today's literature considers the global effects of climate change, excessive fishing effort, nutrient overenrichment, pollution, habitat degradation, biodiversity loss, acidification, and productivity.

Unlike the earlier decades, the s have brought forward a revitalized United Nations system with agencies actually assisting developing countries with introduction and practice of the ecosystems approach to sustaining coastal ocean goods and services. I was listened to politely by in-country experts, but rarely experienced any follow-up actions. The sense of inertia was due in large part to the patronizing top-down approach of the UN system in the s. In contrast, my experience in the s has been in EBM planning and implementation workshops, allowing up to 12 months for country-driven planning to go forward among well trained in-country representatives of engaged key multisectoral ministries to prioritize transboundary issues stressing shared ecosystems.

The workshops are producing through consensus, TDA and SAP planning documents subjected to approval by a GEF Council of peers in a very much bottom-up approach to sustainable development. In the s, there was no significant bottom-up UN system in place. In the s, in response to the three World Environmental Summits, the reorganized UN environmental agencies have been empowered as a substantial World force in an institutionalized matrix. Following a substantial period of underfunding, the billions of dollars now being catalysed are generating a positive and quantifiable outlook for the global movement towards sustainable development.

Large Marine Ecosystems Bibliography

Is this a lucky circumstance? I think not. We have had benefit of 30 years of LME experience when science and management are practised within the same ecological unit. The simplified and highly transparent modular approach to LME assessment and management has proved useful to scientists and ministerial representatives alike. It is, indeed, a rare privilege to have played a part in assisting developing countries on their forward movement towards sustainable development of LMEs.

I am pleased to share a final lesson learned from my career experience. It is through individual participatory effort and commitment to the Common good that science practice can lead to lasting solutions to human and environmental global challenges. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Plankton studies.

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Marine resources monitoring, assessment, and prediction years. ICES connection. Early life history studies. Fusion of science and policy at the LME scale goes global. Natural and social science LME foundations. Modular LME framework. In retrospect. Sustaining the world's large marine ecosystems Kenneth Sherman. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Food for Thought articles are essays in which the author provides their perspective on a research area, topic or issue. They are intended to provide contributors with a forum through which to air their own views and experiences, with few of the constraints that govern standard research articles.

This Food for Thought article is one in a series solicited from leading figures in the fisheries and aquatic sciences community.


The objective is to offer lessons and insights from their careers in an accessible and pedagological form from which the community, and particularly early career scientists, will benefit. Handling editor: Howard Browman. Cite Citation.