He encouraged selected Russians to travel abroad, promoted exploration and scientific enquiry, had Western books translated and published and encouraged the learning of foreign languages. The rise of St. Petersburg in the 18th century was designed to show that the power of the human mind could triumph over the forces of nature, and that Russia was as much a part of the modern world as any other nation.
Tsar Peter spoke of making his new capital at St.
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European technology, trade and the arts - all furthered to name St. Peter the Great was fond of all things Dutch. He started collecting fine art and thus set the tone for the Romanovs to follow. Nowadays we can observe multiple traces of the Dutch culture that inspired Peter more than three centuries ago, e. Indeed, it was he who introduced the concept of collecting paintings to Russia. However, the westernization of Russia was neither begun nor completed in the reign of Peter. It has been continued by Catherine the Great, who has managed to implement all his projects in full measure. Institut voor Noord- en Oosteuropese Studies: Groningen, Aberdeen: We are governed by two contrasted imperatives.
Man as a living being must be good, orders the one, the cultural imperative: what is good must be human, must be lived and so compatible with and necessary to life, savs the other imperative, the vital one. Giving a more generic expression to both, we shall reach the georgica animi" and gives the reference as De Augm. Scienc, VII, j. Neither citation conforms to the editions available to us. Un- cultured life is barbarism, devitalized culture is byzantinism.
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The values of culture remain intact; all that is denied is their exclusive character. For centuries we have gone on talking exclusively of the need that life has of culture. The other — relativism — at- tempts the inverse operation: it gets rid of the objective value of culture altogether in order to leave room for life.
Life, then, for each generation is a task in two dimensions, one of which consists in the reception, through the agency of the previous gen- eration, of what has had life already, e. Culture is the sysfcm of vital ideas which each age possesses; better yet, it is the system of ideas by which each age lives. Znaniecki's Cultural Reality , though written in English by a Polish sociolo- gist, is essentially a philosop'ucal treatise. The basic point of view and argument can be indi- cated by brief quotations: For a general view of the world the fundamental points are that the concrete empirical world is a world in evolution in which nothing absolutely permanent can be found, and that as a world in evolurion it is first of all a world of culture, not of nature, a his- torical, not a physical reality.
Idealism and naturalism both deal, not with the concrete empirical world, but with abstractly isolated aspects of it. The progress of knowledge about culture demon- strates more and more concretely the historical relativity of all human values, including science itself.
The image of the world which we construct is a historical value, relative like all others, and a different one will take its place in the future, even as it has itself taken the place of another image Language, art, religion, science are various phases in this process. In all of them man discovers and proves a new power — the power to build up a world of his own, an "ideal" world. For example, the anthropologist finds himself com- pletely at home reading Richard AlcKcon's treatment of culture in two recent articles in the "Journal of Philosophy" and "Ethics.
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He equates culture with the classical Greek concept of paideia and is quick to contrast the anthro- pological notion unfavorably: We are accustomed to use the word culture not to describe the ideal which only the Hcilcnocentric world possesses, but in a much more trivial and general sense, to denote something inherent in every nation of the world, even the most primitive. We use it for the entire complex of all the ways and ex- pressions of life which characterize any one nation. Thus the word has sunk to mean a simple anthropo- logical concept, not a concept of value, a con- sciously pursued ideal.
It is in this latter, humanistic sense that the word is used in the following passage. The "ideal of culture" in Greek arete and paideia is a specific creation of the Greek mind.
The anthropological concept of culture is a modem extension of this original concept; but it has made out of a concept of value a mere descriptive category which can be applied to any nation, even to "the culture of the primitive" because it has entirely lost its true obliga- tory sense. Even in Matthew Arnold's definition of culture.
It tends to make culture a kind of museum, i. It knows perfection, or at least what is most perfect in human achievement, and resolutely directs its "obligatory" gaze thereto, disdainful of "Eliot, Vogt has linked both the personal and "societal" conceptions of culture to the cult or cultus idea. Incidentally, we believe that when the ultra- montane among the humanists renounce the claim that their subject matter is superior or privileged, and adopt the more catholic and humble human attitude — that from that day the humanities will cease being on the defen- sive in the modem world.
The most recent humanistic statement on culture is that of T. He quotes Tylor on the one hand and Matthew Arnold on the other. At times Eliot speaks of culture in the quite concrete denotation of certain anthropologists: It includes all the characteristic activities and in- terests of a people: Derby Day, Henley Regatta, Cowes, the twelfth of August, a cup final, the dog races, the pin table, the dart board, Wensleydale cheese, boiled cabbage cut into sections, beetroot in vinegar, nineteenth-century Gothic churches and the music of Elgar.
We summarize here what the Oxford diction- ary has to say about the history of the word. The Old French form was coumre, later replaced by culture. More also, 1, Hobbs; , Johnson; , Macaulay ; training of the humr-n body, Hobbes.
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Meaning 5 is: "The training, de- velopment, and refinement of mind, tastes, and manners; the condition of being thus trained and refined; the intellectual side of civilization. Then there are the applica- tions to special industries or technologies, with culture meaning simply "the growing of. Murray, vol. II, The entry reads: 5b. The civilization of a people especially at a certain stage of its development in history. Tylor title , Primitive Culture.
Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico is also cited. A particular state or stage of advancement in civilization; the characteristic attainments of a people or social order: as, Greek culture; primitive culture [Examples from Tylor and Ripley follow; but that from Tylor is not his famous fundamental defini- tion. Of these, 5a is the 7 of , with minor revisions of phrasing.
The two others follow: 5b. The complex of distinctive attainments, belicfj, traditions, etc. Phrases in this sen. The trait complex manifested by a tribe or a separate unit of mankind. Supplement, and Bibliography. Yet as definitions they arc surely fumbling.
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What do they really mean or refer to — especially the vague terms here italicized? And what do they all build up to that a groping reader could carry away? It is true that anthropologists and soci- ologists also have differed widely in their defi- nitions: if they had not, our Part II would have been much briefer than it is.
When it comes to broader concepts, especially of "intangibles," they appear to be- come disconcerted by the seeming differences in professional opinion, and hence either leave out altogether, as long as they can, the professional meaning which a word has acquired, or they hedge between its differences in meaning even at the risk of conveying very little that makes useful sense.
However, each side could undoubtedly profit from the other by more cooperation. This is the Dictionary of Sociology edited by H. Fairchild, The definition of culture was written by Charles A. Cikufe: a collecrive name for all behavior patterns socially acquired and socially transmitted by means of symbols; hence a name for all the distinctive achieve- ments of human groups, including not only such items as language, tool making, industry, art, science, law, government, morals, and religion, but also the material instruments or artifacts in which cultural archievi Mcnts are embodied and by which intellectual cultural features are given practical effect, such as buildings, tools, machines, communication devices, art objects, etc.
The essential part of culture is to be found in the patterns embodied in the social traditions of the group, that is, in knowledge, ideas, beliefs, values, standards, and sentiments prevalent in the group. The overt part of culture is to be found in the actual behavior of the group, usually in its usages, customs, and institutions The essential part of culture seems to be an appreciation of values with reference to life conditions.